Clarity1 Tighten wordy sentences.
1a Redundancies1b Empty or inflated phrases1c Needlessly complex structures
2 Prefer active verbs.
2a When to replace be
verbs2b When to replace passive verbs
3 Balance parallel ideas.
3a Items in a series3b Paired ideas
4 Add needed words.
4a Words in compound structures4b The word that
4c Words in comparisons
5 Eliminate confusing shifts.
5a Shifts in point of view5b Shifts in tense
6 Untangle mixed constructions.
6a Mixed grammar6b Illogical connections6c is when
, is where
, and reason
. . . is because
7 Repair misplaced and dangling modifiers.
7a Misplaced words7b Misplaced phrases and clauses7c Dangling modifiers7d Split infinitives
8 Provide sentence variety.
8a Combining choppy sentences8b Varying sentence openings
9 Find an appropriate voice.
9a Jargon9b Clichés9c Slang9d Sexist language9e Offensive language Grammar10 Make subjects and verbs agree.
10a Words between subject and verb10b Subjects joined with and
10c Subjects joined with or
10d Indefinite pronouns such as someone
10e Collective nouns such as jury
10f Subject after verb10g who
, and that
10h Plural form, singular meaning10i Titles, company names, and words mentioned as words
11 Be alert to other problems with verbs.
11a Irregular verbs11b Tense11c Mood
12 Use pronouns with care.
12a Pronoun-antecedent agreement12b Pronoun reference12c Case of personal pronouns (I
13 Use adjectives and adverbs appropriately.
13a Adjectives 13b Adverbs13c Comparatives and superlatives
14 Repair sentence fragments.
14a Fragmented clauses14b Fragmented phrases14c Acceptable fragments
15 Revise run-on sentences.
15a Revision with a comma and a coordinating conjunction15b Revision with a semicolon (or a colon or a dash)15c Revision by separating sentences15d Revision by restructuring the sentence
16 Review grammar concerns for multilingual writers.
16a Verbs16b Articles (a
)16c Sentence structure16d Prepositions showing time and place
Punctuation17 The comma
17a Before a coordinating conjunction joining independent clauses17b After an introductory word group17c Between items in a series17d Between coordinate adjectives17e To set off a nonrestrictive element, but not a restrictive element17f To set off transitional and parenthetical expressions, absolute phrases, and contrasted elements17g To set off nouns of direct address, the words yes
, interrogative tags, and mild interjections17h To set off direct quotations introduced with expressions such as he said
17i With dates, addresses, and titles17j Misuses of the comma
18 The semicolon and the colon
18a The semicolon18b The colon
19 The apostrophe
19a To indicate possession19b To mark contractions19c Conventional uses19d Misuses of the apostrophe
20 Quotation marks
20a To enclose direct quotations20b Around titles of short works20c To set off words used as words20d Other punctuation with quotation marks20e Misuses of quotation marks
21 Other marks
21a The period21b The question mark21c The exclamation point21d The dash21e Parentheses21f Brackets21g The ellipsis mark21h The slash Mechanics22 Capitalization
22a Proper vs. common nouns22b Titles with proper names22c Titles of works22d First word of a sentence or quoted sentence22e First word following a colon22f Abbreviations
23 Abbreviations, numbers, and italics
23a Abbreviations23b Numbers23c Italics
24 Spelling and the hyphen
24a Spelling24b The hyphen
Research25 Posing a research question
25a Choosing a focused question25b Choosing a challenging question25c Choosing a grounded question
26 Finding appropriate sources
26a Using the library26b Using the Web26c Using bibliographies and citations
27 Evaluating sources
27a Selecting sources27b Reading with an open mind and a critical eye27c Assessing Web sources with special care27d Annotating bibliography entries
28 Managing information; avoiding plagiarism
28a Maintaining a working bibliography28b Keeping track of source materials28c Taking notes responsibly: avoiding unintentional plagiarism
MLA Papers29 Supporting a thesis
29a Forming a working thesis29b Testing your thesis29c Organizing your ideas29d Using sources to inform and support your argument
30 Avoiding plagiarism
30a Citing quotations and borrowed ideas30b Enclosing borrowed language in quotation marks30c Putting summaries and paraphrases in your own words
31 Integrating sources
31a Using quotations appropriately31b Using signal phrases to integrate sources31c Synthesizing sources
32 Integrating literary quotations
32a Introducing quotations from literary works32b Avoiding shifts in tense32c Formatting and citing literary passages
33 MLA documentation style
33a MLA in-text citations33b MLA works cited33c MLA information notes (optional)
34 MLA manuscript format; sample pages
34a MLA manuscript format34b Pages from two MLA papers
35 Supporting a thesis
35a Forming a working thesis35b Organizing your ideas35c Using sources to inform and support your argument
36 Avoiding plagiarism
36a Citing quotations and borrowed ideas36b Enclosing borrowed language in quotation marks36c Putting summaries and paraphrases in your own words
37 Integrating sources
37a Using quotations appropriately37b Using signal phrases to integrate sources
38 APA documentation style
38a APA in-text citations38b APA references
39 APA manuscript format; sample pages
39a APA manuscript format39b Sample APA pages Chicago Papers40 Supporting a thesis
40a Forming a working thesis40b Organizing your ideas40c Using sources to inform and support your argument
41 Avoiding plagiarism
41a Citing quotations and borrowed ideas41b Enclosing borrowed language in quotation marks41c Putting summaries and paraphrases in your own words
42 Integrating sources
42a Using quotations appropriately42b Using signal phrases to integrate sources
43 Chicago documentation style (notes and bibliography)
43a First and later notes for a source43b Chicago
-style bibliography43c Model notes and bibliography entries
44 Chicago manuscript format; sample pages
manuscript format44b Sample pages from a Chicago
paper CSE Papers45 CSE documentation style
45a CSE documentation systems45b CSE in-text citations45c CSE references
46 CSE manuscript format
46a Formatting the paper46b Formatting the reference list
AppendicesGlossary of usageGlossary of grammatical termsChecklist for global revisionChecklist for visiting the writing center IndexCharts and lists for quick referenceList of excerpts from student papers